Il libro "La Mucca Viola" e gli stadi di adozione del prodotto - #libro #video

“Non compri vernice, compri muri verniciati”

Questa frase viene dal libro di Seth Godin “La mucca viola” che ho appena finito di leggere.

Anche se non è sicuramente uno dei suoi ultimi libri, è un esempio di un contenuto evergreen che qualsiasi persona che lavora in marketing dovrebbe leggere.

Nel libro si parla infatti di concetti immutabili del marketing riguardo al mercato di riferimento, l’importanza del prodotto e la capacità di renderlo memorabile.

In questo video analizzo il libro e spiego alcuni concetti interessanti che ho individuato:

  • L’evoluzione della domanda e del mercato
  • I vari segmenti di mercato e capire a chi rivolgerci
  • Come i leader di mercato hanno guadagnato quella posizione
  • Per chi creare i nostri prodotti
  • L’importanza della qualità del marketing
 
 

Libro e appunti

Titolo: La mucca viola
Autore: Seth Godin
Voto: 2/5
Altro libro suggerito: Oversubscribed: How to Get People Lining Up to Do Business with You (Daniel Priestley)

4 lezioni apprese dal libro:

1) Il mercato ha ormai colmato tutta la domanda latente di possibili acquirenti con prodotti mass-market. La tua unica chance per non entrare in una guerra di prezzo è creare un prodotto non per tutti, ma per uno specifico segmento di mercato (innovators e early adopters)

2) Quasi tutti i leader di mercato hanno creato un prodotto o esperienza straordinaria con cui si sono posizionati. Se un’azienda non continua a innovare ciclicamente la loro posizione verrà presa da aziende che sono in grado di farlo.

3) Creare prodotti per i tuoi innovators, trovare un modo di fare marketing a questo segmento e rendere facile per questi utenti parlare del tuo prodotto per passare la notizia al prossimo segmento di mercato.

4) Marketing tanto per far marketing è sbagliato. Meglio lasciare gli utenti nel ricordo della tua ultima trovata di qualità piuttosto che pubblicare solamente per il dovere di farlo.

Esempi interessanti: Krispy Kreme, Dutch Boy, cerotti

Highlights e note personali (note in grossetto):

  • As marketers , we know the old stuff isn’t working . And we know why : because as consumers , we’re too busy to pay attention to advertising , but we’re desperate to find good stuff that solves our problems .
  • They showed that there are only four kinds of people ( prospects , customers , loyal customers , and former customers ) and that loyal customers are often happy to spend more money with you .
  • Most people can’t buy your product . Either they don’t have the money , they don’t have the time , or they don’t want it . If an audience doesn’t have the money to buy what you’re selling at the price you need to sell it for , you don’t have a market . If an audience doesn’t have the time to listen to and understand your pitch , you’ll be treated as if you were invisible . And if an audience takes the time to hear your pitch but decides they don’t want it … well , you’re not going to get very far . The world has changed . There are far more choices , but there is less and less time to sort them out .
  • Bottom line ? All the obvious targets are gone , so people aren’t likely to have easily solved problems . Consumers are hard to reach because they ignore you . Satisfied customers are less likely to tell their friends .
  • The old rule was this : CREATE SAFE , ORDINARY PRODUCTS AND COMBINE THEM WITH GREAT MARKETING . The new rule is : CREATE REMARKABLE PRODUCTS THAT THE RIGHT PEOPLE SEEK OUT .
  • The marketer of yesterday valued the volume of people she could reach . The center of the black curve above was the goal . Mass marketing traditionally targets the early and late majority because this is the largest group . But in many markets , the value of a group isn’t related to its size – a group’s value is related to its influence . In this market , for example , the early adopters heavily influence the rest of the curve , so persuading them is worth far more than wasting ad dollars trying to persuade anyone else .
  • Before and After TV – INDUSTRIAL AGE POST – TV AGE AVERAGE PRODUCTS REMARKABLE PRODUCTS ADVERTISE TO ANYONE ADVERTISE TO THE EARLY ADOPTER FEAR OF FAILURE FEAR OF FEAR LONG CYCLES SHORT CYCLES SMALL CHANGES BIG CHANGES
  • The reason it’s so hard to follow the leader is this : The leader is the leader because he did something remarkable . And that remarkable thing is now taken – it’s no longer remarkable when you do it .
  • Instead of trying to use your technology and expertise to make a better product for your users ’ standard behavior , experiment with inviting the users to change their behavior to make the product work dramatically better .
  • Non sono molto d’accordo con questo punto. È molto più difficile cambiare le abitudini di milioni di persone rispetto adattare il proprio prodotto a delle abitudini esistenti.
  • If a product’s future is unlikely to be remarkable – if you can’t imagine a future in which people are once again fascinated by your product – it’s time to realize that the game has changed . Instead of investing in a dying product , take profits and reinvest them in building something new .
  • Only the risk – taking , idea – spreading people on the left part of the curve are willing to listen to you .
  • Ogni grande movimento è nato da un piccolo numero di persone pronte ad ascoltare e agire
  • Trailing after the early adopters are the early and late majority . These consumers don’t necessarily yearn for a new product or service that can benefit them , but if enough of their peers try it and talk about it , these followers are likely to come along as well . It’s essential to realize two things about this big and profitable group . First , these people are really good at ignoring you . They have problems that they find far more significant than the ones your product solves , and they’re just not willing to invest the time to listen to you . Second , they often don’t even listen to the innovators on the left part of the curve . The early and late majority want protocols and systems and safety that new products rarely offer . Countless products never manage to get far enough along the curve to reach these folks . And if they’re not even going to listen to their friends , why should they listen to you ?
  • The only chance you have is to sell to people who like change , who like new stuff , who are actively looking for what it is you sell . Then you hope that the idea spreads , moving from the early adopters to the rest of the curve . After the early adopters embrace what you’re selling , they are the ones who will sell it to the early majority – not you .
  • Mi piace il concetto che saranno gli innovators a proporre il tuo prodotto agli early adopters è così via
  • You must design a product that is remarkable enough to attract the early adopters – but is flexible enough and attractive enough that those adopters will have an easy time spreading the idea to the rest of the curve.
  • Don’t try to make a product for everybody , because that is a product for nobody .
  • The way you break through to the mainstream is to target a niche instead of a huge market .
  • It’s not an accident that some products catch on and some don’t . When an ideavirus occurs , it’s often because all the viral pieces work together . How smooth and easy is it to spread your idea ? How often will people sneeze it to their friends ? How tightly knit is the group you’re targeting – do they talk much ? Do they believe each other ? How reputable are the people most likely to promote your idea ? How persistent is it – is it a fad that has to spread fast before it dies , or will the idea have legs ( and thus you can invest in spreading it over time ) ?
  • Services that are worth talking about get talked about .
  • Differentiate your customers . Find the group that’s most profitable . Find the group that’s most likely to sneeze . Figure out how to develop / advertise / reward either group . Ignore the rest . Your ads ( and your products ! ) shouldn’t cater to the masses . Your ads ( and products ) should cater to the customers you’d choose if you could choose your customers .
  • Make a list of competitors who are not trying to be everything to everyone . Are they outperforming you ? If you could pick one underserved niche to target ( and to dominate ) , what would it be ? Why not launch a product to compete with your own – a product that does nothing but appeal to this market ?
  • In a crowded marketplace , fitting in is failing . In a busy marketplace , not standing out is the same as being invisible .
  • Non innovare non ti farà mai tenere la tua posizione di leader. Se non innovi ti supereranno
  • We’ve been raised with a false belief : We mistakenly believe that criticism leads to failure . From the time we get to school , we’re taught that being noticed is almost always bad . It gets us sent to the principal’s office , not to Harvard . Nobody says , “ Yeah , I’d like to set myself up for some serious criticism ! ” And yet … the only way to be remarkable is to do just that .
  • You do not equal the project . Criticism of the project is not criticism of you . The fact that we need to be reminded of this points to how unprepared we are for the era of the Cow . It’s people who have projects that are never criticized who ultimately fail .
  • The lesson of the Cow is worth repeating : Safe is risky .
  • Mass marketing demands mass products . And mass products beg for mass marketing .
  • Part One : Boring Products . Companies that are built around mass marketing develop their products accordingly . These companies round the edges , smooth out the differentiating features , and try to make products that are bland enough to work for the masses . These companies make spicy food less spicy , and they make insanely great service a little less great ( and a little cheaper ) .
  • Remember , those ads reach two kinds of viewers : The highly coveted innovators and adopters who will be bored by this mass – marketed product and decide to ignore it . The early and late majority who are unlikely to listen to an ad for any new product , and are unlikely to buy it if they do .
  • Part Two : Scary Budgets . In order to launch a product for the masses , you need to spend big . It’s not unusual to spend a million dollars to launch something local , and spend a hundred times that to do an effective national rollout . For most of the three hundred major movies launched by Hollywood every year , the studios spend more than $ 20 million on marketing for each movie .
  • The front – loading of the budget does two things to your product : It means you get very few chances to launch new products because each one is so expensive . Thus , you won’t make risky bets , and you’ll be even more likely to introduce boring , me – too products . It doesn’t give you a chance to ride through the idea diffusion curve . It takes a while to reach the sneezers , who take a while to reach the rest of the population . But your front – loaded budget means that by the time the bulk of the population hears about what you’ve done , you’ve burned out the retailers , destroyed your inventory , or , worst of all , driven your startup company into bankruptcy .
  • His sourdough bread is made with just flour , water , starter , and sea salt , and it’s baked in a wood – fired oven . Poilane refused to hire bakers – he told me they had too many bad habits to unlearn – and instead hired young men who were willing to apprentice with him for years .
  • Case Study : A New Kind of Kiwi The last time New Zealand successfully introduced a fruit to North America ( which in itself is a cool postmodern idea ) , it was the gooseberry . They renamed it the “ kiwi , ” introduced it to yuppies , foodies , and upscale supermarkets , and watched it take off . Today , diffusing an idea about a new fruit is much more difficult . How then to launch a new kiwi , one that’s golden with an edible peel ? Zespri , the only company that knows how to grow the new kiwi , aimed at a niche – Latino foodies . The new kiwi has a lot in common with mangoes and papayas but is different enough to be remarkable . By targeting upscale Latino groceries , Zespri found underserved produce buyers who had both the time and the inclination to try something that was new and exclusive . So , without advertising at all , Zespri gets the fruit in front of an audience of risk – taking sneezers . If Zespri is aggressive in doing in – store tasting , they’ve got an excellent chance of working their way through the Latino community and then eventually crossing over to the rest of the mass market . Last year , Zespri managed to sell more than $ 100 million worth of golden kiwi fruit , but unless you’re Latino , you’ve probably never even seen it .
  • Case Study : The Italian Butcher There are literally thousands of butchers in Italy , but only one of them is famous ( and only one of them is rich ) . Dario Cecchini has been profiled in magazine articles and guidebooks . His 250 – year – old butcher shop in Panzano almost always has a crowd . People come from all over the world to visit his shop – to hear him quote Dante and rhapsodize about the Fiorentina beefsteak . When the European Economic Union banned the sale of steak with the bones left in ( because of the fear of mad cow disease * ) , Dario Cecchini held a mock funeral and buried a steak in front of his store – complete with casket . Is his meat that much better ? Probably not . But by turning the process of buying meat into an intellectual and political exercise , Dario has figured out more than one way to make money from a cow – this time , a purple one .
  • What makes it remarkable is if it’s horrible beyond belief or if the service is so unexpected ( they were an hour early ! they comped my ticket because I was cute ! they served flaming crêpes suzette in first class ! ) that you need to share it .
  • Case Study : Curad When Curad wanted to challenge the Band – Aid brand for the market for adhesive bandages , most people thought Curad was crazy . Band – Aid was a household institution , a name so well known it was practically generic . And the product was terrific . What could Curad hope to accomplish ? Curad developed a Purple Cow – bandages with characters printed on them . Kids , the prime consumers of small bandages , loved them . So did parents who wanted to make the boo – boos get better even faster ! And of course , when the first kid with Curads wore them to school , every other kid wanted them , too . It didn’t take very long at all for Curad to grab a chunk of market share away from the market leader .
  • Doing nothing is not as good as doing something ( great ) . But marketing just to keep busy is worse than nothing at all .
  • The more intransigent your market , the more crowded the marketplace , the busier your customers , the more you need the Purple Cow . Half – measures will fail . Overhauling the product with dramatic improvements in things the right customers care about , on the other hand , can have a huge payoff .
  • They also realized that the can was an integral part of the product – people don’t buy paint ; they buy painted walls , and the can makes the painting process much easier . Dutch Boy used this insight and introduced an easier – to – carry , easier – to – pour – from , easier – to – close paint jug . Sales went way up – no surprise when you think about it . Not only did the new packaging increase sales , but it also got Dutch Boy paint more distribution ( at a higher retail price ! ) . A few obvious changes in the can meant a huge surge in sales for Dutch Boy . The obvious question : Why did it take so long ? This is marketing done right . Marketing where the marketer changes the product , not the ads .
  • Bello questo concetto. Il contenitore è parte del prodotto e il prodotto è più importante di come lo pubblicizzi.
  • When Krispy Kreme opens in a new town , they begin by giving away thousands of donuts . Of course , the people most likely to show up for a free hot donut are those who have heard the legend of Krispy Kreme and are delighted that they’re finally in town . These sneezers are quick to tell their friends , sell their friends , even drag their friends to a store . And that’s where the second phase kicks in . Krispy Kreme is obsessed with dominating the donut conversation . Once they’ve opened their flagship stores in an area , they rush to do deals with gas stations , coffee shops , and delis . The goal ? To make it easy for someone to stumble onto the product . They start with people who will drive twenty miles , and finish with people too lazy to cross the street .
  • Il nostro mvp si deve vendere da solo e deve essere fatto per gli innovators. Una volta che questo passaggio è compiuto possiamo iniziare ad andare noi in contro al resto del mercato
  • In other words , find the market niche first , and then make the remarkable product – not the other way around .
  • And then the card says , “ If you have any comments at all about the store , please call me at home . ” And it lists the owner’s home phone number . People who visit , notice . People who work there realize that the customers are noticing . It’s all very remarkable . Stand in the store for twenty minutes , and you’re sure to hear one customer mention the cards to another . If every store owner did this , it probably wouldn’t work . But because it’s so unusual , the customers take notice and the staff is on alert .
  • Come momenti che contano
  • If someone in your organization is charged with creating a new Purple Cow , leave them alone ! Don’t use internal reviews and usability testing to figure out if the new product is as good as what you’ve got now . Instead , pick the right maverick and get out of the way
  • The four steps , then , are these : Get permission from people you impressed the first time . Not permission to spam them or sell them leftovers or squeeze extra margins from them . Permission to alert them the next time you might have another Cow . Work with the sneezers in that audience to make it easier for them to help your idea cross the chasm . Give them the tools ( and the story ) they’ll need to sell your idea to a wider audience . Once you’ve crossed the line from remarkable to profitable business , let a different team milk it . Productize your services , servicize your products , let a thousand variations bloom . But don’t believe your own press releases . This is the inevitable downward slide to commodity . Milk it for all it’s worth , and fast . Reinvest . Do it again . With a vengeance . Launch another Purple Cow ( to the same audience ) . Fail and fail and fail again . Assume that what was remarkable last time won’t be remarkable this time .
  • The new CEO of Best Buy , Brad Anderson , is a brilliant strategist . He’s got a sharp eye for the key moments in the evolution of his company . He said , “ Instead of selling what we wanted to sell , we sold what people wanted us to sell , and then figured out how to make money doing it . Every time we talked to our customers , they wanted us to follow the path that turned out to be the hardest possible path we could follow . And every time , that path was the right path . ”
  • Remarkable isn’t always about changing the biggest machine in your factory . It can be the way you answer the phone , launch a new brand , or price a revision to your software . Getting in the habit of doing the “ unsafe ” thing every time you have the opportunity is the best way to learn to project – you get practice at seeing what’s working and what’s not .
  • Remember , it’s not about being weird . It’s about being irresistible to a tiny group of easily reached sneezers with otaku .
  • Lottery tickets offer low investment and a big win . When the jackpot hits record levels ( $ 100 million is remarkable money , even to a millionaire ) , ticket sales go up exponentially . Ironically , the odds of winning are even worse than usual , so buying when there’s a $ 20 million jackpot is the smarter of two dumb choices . So why do sales go up ? Because the remarkable nature of the larger jackpot gets people talking about it and dreaming about winning .
  • Explore the limits . What if you’re the cheapest , the fastest , the slowest , the hottest , the coldest , the easiest , the most efficient , the loudest , the most hated , the copycat , the outsider , the hardest , the oldest , the newest , the … most ! If there’s a limit , you should ( must ) test it .
  • Build and use a permission asset . Once you have the ability to talk directly to your most loyal customers , it gets much easier to develop and sell amazing things . Without the filters of advertising , wholesalers , and retailers , you can create products that are far more remarkable
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