Titolo: La mucca viola
Autore: Seth Godin
Altro libro suggerito: Oversubscribed: How to Get People Lining Up to Do Business with You (Daniel Priestley)
4 lezioni apprese dal libro:
1) Il mercato ha ormai colmato tutta la domanda latente di possibili acquirenti con prodotti mass-market. La tua unica chance per non entrare in una guerra di prezzo è creare un prodotto non per tutti, ma per uno specifico segmento di mercato (innovators e early adopters)
2) Quasi tutti i leader di mercato hanno creato un prodotto o esperienza straordinaria con cui si sono posizionati. Se un’azienda non continua a innovare ciclicamente la loro posizione verrà presa da aziende che sono in grado di farlo.
3) Creare prodotti per i tuoi innovators, trovare un modo di fare marketing a questo segmento e rendere facile per questi utenti parlare del tuo prodotto per passare la notizia al prossimo segmento di mercato.
4) Marketing tanto per far marketing è sbagliato. Meglio lasciare gli utenti nel ricordo della tua ultima trovata di qualità piuttosto che pubblicare solamente per il dovere di farlo.
Esempi interessanti: Krispy Kreme, Dutch Boy, cerotti
Highlights e note personali (note in grossetto):
- As marketers , we know the old stuff isn’t working . And we know why : because as consumers , we’re too busy to pay attention to advertising , but we’re desperate to find good stuff that solves our problems .
- They showed that there are only four kinds of people ( prospects , customers , loyal customers , and former customers ) and that loyal customers are often happy to spend more money with you .
- Most people can’t buy your product . Either they don’t have the money , they don’t have the time , or they don’t want it . If an audience doesn’t have the money to buy what you’re selling at the price you need to sell it for , you don’t have a market . If an audience doesn’t have the time to listen to and understand your pitch , you’ll be treated as if you were invisible . And if an audience takes the time to hear your pitch but decides they don’t want it … well , you’re not going to get very far . The world has changed . There are far more choices , but there is less and less time to sort them out .
- Bottom line ? All the obvious targets are gone , so people aren’t likely to have easily solved problems . Consumers are hard to reach because they ignore you . Satisfied customers are less likely to tell their friends .
- The old rule was this : CREATE SAFE , ORDINARY PRODUCTS AND COMBINE THEM WITH GREAT MARKETING . The new rule is : CREATE REMARKABLE PRODUCTS THAT THE RIGHT PEOPLE SEEK OUT .
- The marketer of yesterday valued the volume of people she could reach . The center of the black curve above was the goal . Mass marketing traditionally targets the early and late majority because this is the largest group . But in many markets , the value of a group isn’t related to its size – a group’s value is related to its influence . In this market , for example , the early adopters heavily influence the rest of the curve , so persuading them is worth far more than wasting ad dollars trying to persuade anyone else .
- Before and After TV – INDUSTRIAL AGE POST – TV AGE AVERAGE PRODUCTS REMARKABLE PRODUCTS ADVERTISE TO ANYONE ADVERTISE TO THE EARLY ADOPTER FEAR OF FAILURE FEAR OF FEAR LONG CYCLES SHORT CYCLES SMALL CHANGES BIG CHANGES
- The reason it’s so hard to follow the leader is this : The leader is the leader because he did something remarkable . And that remarkable thing is now taken – it’s no longer remarkable when you do it .
- ￼Instead of trying to use your technology and expertise to make a better product for your users ’ standard behavior , experiment with inviting the users to change their behavior to make the product work dramatically better .
- Non sono molto d’accordo con questo punto. È molto più difficile cambiare le abitudini di milioni di persone rispetto adattare il proprio prodotto a delle abitudini esistenti.
- ￼If a product’s future is unlikely to be remarkable – if you can’t imagine a future in which people are once again fascinated by your product – it’s time to realize that the game has changed . Instead of investing in a dying product , take profits and reinvest them in building something new .
- Only the risk – taking , idea – spreading people on the left part of the curve are willing to listen to you .
- Ogni grande movimento è nato da un piccolo numero di persone pronte ad ascoltare e agire
- Trailing after the early adopters are the early and late majority . These consumers don’t necessarily yearn for a new product or service that can benefit them , but if enough of their peers try it and talk about it , these followers are likely to come along as well . It’s essential to realize two things about this big and profitable group . First , these people are really good at ignoring you . They have problems that they find far more significant than the ones your product solves , and they’re just not willing to invest the time to listen to you . Second , they often don’t even listen to the innovators on the left part of the curve . The early and late majority want protocols and systems and safety that new products rarely offer . Countless products never manage to get far enough along the curve to reach these folks . And if they’re not even going to listen to their friends , why should they listen to you ?
- The only chance you have is to sell to people who like change , who like new stuff , who are actively looking for what it is you sell . Then you hope that the idea spreads , moving from the early adopters to the rest of the curve . After the early adopters embrace what you’re selling , they are the ones who will sell it to the early majority – not you .
- Mi piace il concetto che saranno gli innovators a proporre il tuo prodotto agli early adopters è così via
- You must design a product that is remarkable enough to attract the early adopters – but is flexible enough and attractive enough that those adopters will have an easy time spreading the idea to the rest of the curve.
- Don’t try to make a product for everybody , because that is a product for nobody .
- The way you break through to the mainstream is to target a niche instead of a huge market .
- ￼It’s not an accident that some products catch on and some don’t . When an ideavirus occurs , it’s often because all the viral pieces work together . How smooth and easy is it to spread your idea ? How often will people sneeze it to their friends ? How tightly knit is the group you’re targeting – do they talk much ? Do they believe each other ? How reputable are the people most likely to promote your idea ? How persistent is it – is it a fad that has to spread fast before it dies , or will the idea have legs ( and thus you can invest in spreading it over time ) ?
- Services that are worth talking about get talked about .
- ￼Differentiate your customers . Find the group that’s most profitable . Find the group that’s most likely to sneeze . Figure out how to develop / advertise / reward either group . Ignore the rest . Your ads ( and your products ! ) shouldn’t cater to the masses . Your ads ( and products ) should cater to the customers you’d choose if you could choose your customers .
- ￼Make a list of competitors who are not trying to be everything to everyone . Are they outperforming you ? If you could pick one underserved niche to target ( and to dominate ) , what would it be ? Why not launch a product to compete with your own – a product that does nothing but appeal to this market ?
- In a crowded marketplace , fitting in is failing . In a busy marketplace , not standing out is the same as being invisible .
- Non innovare non ti farà mai tenere la tua posizione di leader. Se non innovi ti supereranno
- We’ve been raised with a false belief : We mistakenly believe that criticism leads to failure . From the time we get to school , we’re taught that being noticed is almost always bad . It gets us sent to the principal’s office , not to Harvard . Nobody says , “ Yeah , I’d like to set myself up for some serious criticism ! ” And yet … the only way to be remarkable is to do just that .
- You do not equal the project . Criticism of the project is not criticism of you . The fact that we need to be reminded of this points to how unprepared we are for the era of the Cow . It’s people who have projects that are never criticized who ultimately fail .
- The lesson of the Cow is worth repeating : Safe is risky .
- Mass marketing demands mass products . And mass products beg for mass marketing .
- Part One : Boring Products . Companies that are built around mass marketing develop their products accordingly . These companies round the edges , smooth out the differentiating features , and try to make products that are bland enough to work for the masses . These companies make spicy food less spicy , and they make insanely great service a little less great ( and a little cheaper ) .
- Remember , those ads reach two kinds of viewers : The highly coveted innovators and adopters who will be bored by this mass – marketed product and decide to ignore it . The early and late majority who are unlikely to listen to an ad for any new product , and are unlikely to buy it if they do .
- Part Two : Scary Budgets . In order to launch a product for the masses , you need to spend big . It’s not unusual to spend a million dollars to launch something local , and spend a hundred times that to do an effective national rollout . For most of the three hundred major movies launched by Hollywood every year , the studios spend more than $ 20 million on marketing for each movie .
- The front – loading of the budget does two things to your product : It means you get very few chances to launch new products because each one is so expensive . Thus , you won’t make risky bets , and you’ll be even more likely to introduce boring , me – too products . It doesn’t give you a chance to ride through the idea diffusion curve . It takes a while to reach the sneezers , who take a while to reach the rest of the population . But your front – loaded budget means that by the time the bulk of the population hears about what you’ve done , you’ve burned out the retailers , destroyed your inventory , or , worst of all , driven your startup company into bankruptcy .
- His sourdough bread is made with just flour , water , starter , and sea salt , and it’s baked in a wood – fired oven . Poilane refused to hire bakers – he told me they had too many bad habits to unlearn – and instead hired young men who were willing to apprentice with him for years .
- Case Study : A New Kind of Kiwi The last time New Zealand successfully introduced a fruit to North America ( which in itself is a cool postmodern idea ) , it was the gooseberry . They renamed it the “ kiwi , ” introduced it to yuppies , foodies , and upscale supermarkets , and watched it take off . Today , diffusing an idea about a new fruit is much more difficult . How then to launch a new kiwi , one that’s golden with an edible peel ? Zespri , the only company that knows how to grow the new kiwi , aimed at a niche – Latino foodies . The new kiwi has a lot in common with mangoes and papayas but is different enough to be remarkable . By targeting upscale Latino groceries , Zespri found underserved produce buyers who had both the time and the inclination to try something that was new and exclusive . So , without advertising at all , Zespri gets the fruit in front of an audience of risk – taking sneezers . If Zespri is aggressive in doing in – store tasting , they’ve got an excellent chance of working their way through the Latino community and then eventually crossing over to the rest of the mass market . Last year , Zespri managed to sell more than $ 100 million worth of golden kiwi fruit , but unless you’re Latino , you’ve probably never even seen it .
- Case Study : The Italian Butcher There are literally thousands of butchers in Italy , but only one of them is famous ( and only one of them is rich ) . Dario Cecchini has been profiled in magazine articles and guidebooks . His 250 – year – old butcher shop in Panzano almost always has a crowd . People come from all over the world to visit his shop – to hear him quote Dante and rhapsodize about the Fiorentina beefsteak . When the European Economic Union banned the sale of steak with the bones left in ( because of the fear of mad cow disease * ) , Dario Cecchini held a mock funeral and buried a steak in front of his store – complete with casket . Is his meat that much better ? Probably not . But by turning the process of buying meat into an intellectual and political exercise , Dario has figured out more than one way to make money from a cow – this time , a purple one .
- What makes it remarkable is if it’s horrible beyond belief or if the service is so unexpected ( they were an hour early ! they comped my ticket because I was cute ! they served flaming crêpes suzette in first class ! ) that you need to share it .
- Case Study : Curad When Curad wanted to challenge the Band – Aid brand for the market for adhesive bandages , most people thought Curad was crazy . Band – Aid was a household institution , a name so well known it was practically generic . And the product was terrific . What could Curad hope to accomplish ? Curad developed a Purple Cow – bandages with characters printed on them . Kids , the prime consumers of small bandages , loved them . So did parents who wanted to make the boo – boos get better even faster ! And of course , when the first kid with Curads wore them to school , every other kid wanted them , too . It didn’t take very long at all for Curad to grab a chunk of market share away from the market leader .
- Doing nothing is not as good as doing something ( great ) . But marketing just to keep busy is worse than nothing at all .
- The more intransigent your market , the more crowded the marketplace , the busier your customers , the more you need the Purple Cow . Half – measures will fail . Overhauling the product with dramatic improvements in things the right customers care about , on the other hand , can have a huge payoff .
- They also realized that the can was an integral part of the product – people don’t buy paint ; they buy painted walls , and the can makes the painting process much easier . Dutch Boy used this insight and introduced an easier – to – carry , easier – to – pour – from , easier – to – close paint jug . Sales went way up – no surprise when you think about it . Not only did the new packaging increase sales , but it also got Dutch Boy paint more distribution ( at a higher retail price ! ) . A few obvious changes in the can meant a huge surge in sales for Dutch Boy . The obvious question : Why did it take so long ? This is marketing done right . Marketing where the marketer changes the product , not the ads .
- Bello questo concetto. Il contenitore è parte del prodotto e il prodotto è più importante di come lo pubblicizzi.
- When Krispy Kreme opens in a new town , they begin by giving away thousands of donuts . Of course , the people most likely to show up for a free hot donut are those who have heard the legend of Krispy Kreme and are delighted that they’re finally in town . These sneezers are quick to tell their friends , sell their friends , even drag their friends to a store . And that’s where the second phase kicks in . Krispy Kreme is obsessed with dominating the donut conversation . Once they’ve opened their flagship stores in an area , they rush to do deals with gas stations , coffee shops , and delis . The goal ? To make it easy for someone to stumble onto the product . They start with people who will drive twenty miles , and finish with people too lazy to cross the street .
- Il nostro mvp si deve vendere da solo e deve essere fatto per gli innovators. Una volta che questo passaggio è compiuto possiamo iniziare ad andare noi in contro al resto del mercato
- In other words , find the market niche first , and then make the remarkable product – not the other way around .
- And then the card says , “ If you have any comments at all about the store , please call me at home . ” And it lists the owner’s home phone number . People who visit , notice . People who work there realize that the customers are noticing . It’s all very remarkable . Stand in the store for twenty minutes , and you’re sure to hear one customer mention the cards to another . If every store owner did this , it probably wouldn’t work . But because it’s so unusual , the customers take notice and the staff is on alert .
- Come momenti che contano
- ￼If someone in your organization is charged with creating a new Purple Cow , leave them alone ! Don’t use internal reviews and usability testing to figure out if the new product is as good as what you’ve got now . Instead , pick the right maverick and get out of the way
- The four steps , then , are these : Get permission from people you impressed the first time . Not permission to spam them or sell them leftovers or squeeze extra margins from them . Permission to alert them the next time you might have another Cow . Work with the sneezers in that audience to make it easier for them to help your idea cross the chasm . Give them the tools ( and the story ) they’ll need to sell your idea to a wider audience . Once you’ve crossed the line from remarkable to profitable business , let a different team milk it . Productize your services , servicize your products , let a thousand variations bloom . But don’t believe your own press releases . This is the inevitable downward slide to commodity . Milk it for all it’s worth , and fast . Reinvest . Do it again . With a vengeance . Launch another Purple Cow ( to the same audience ) . Fail and fail and fail again . Assume that what was remarkable last time won’t be remarkable this time .
- The new CEO of Best Buy , Brad Anderson , is a brilliant strategist . He’s got a sharp eye for the key moments in the evolution of his company . He said , “ Instead of selling what we wanted to sell , we sold what people wanted us to sell , and then figured out how to make money doing it . Every time we talked to our customers , they wanted us to follow the path that turned out to be the hardest possible path we could follow . And every time , that path was the right path . ”
- ￼Remarkable isn’t always about changing the biggest machine in your factory . It can be the way you answer the phone , launch a new brand , or price a revision to your software . Getting in the habit of doing the “ unsafe ” thing every time you have the opportunity is the best way to learn to project – you get practice at seeing what’s working and what’s not .
- Remember , it’s not about being weird . It’s about being irresistible to a tiny group of easily reached sneezers with otaku .
- Lottery tickets offer low investment and a big win . When the jackpot hits record levels ( $ 100 million is remarkable money , even to a millionaire ) , ticket sales go up exponentially . Ironically , the odds of winning are even worse than usual , so buying when there’s a $ 20 million jackpot is the smarter of two dumb choices . So why do sales go up ? Because the remarkable nature of the larger jackpot gets people talking about it and dreaming about winning .
- Explore the limits . What if you’re the cheapest , the fastest , the slowest , the hottest , the coldest , the easiest , the most efficient , the loudest , the most hated , the copycat , the outsider , the hardest , the oldest , the newest , the … most ! If there’s a limit , you should ( must ) test it .
- ￼Build and use a permission asset . Once you have the ability to talk directly to your most loyal customers , it gets much easier to develop and sell amazing things . Without the filters of advertising , wholesalers , and retailers , you can create products that are far more remarkable
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